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Hepatitis A


  • Person to Person contact
    • Hepatitis A is highly contagious and can be transmitted through intimate, personal interactions with an infected individual, including sexual contact, providing care to someone who is sick, or sharing drugs with others. It’s important to note that the virus can be spread even before the infected person experiences any symptoms.
  • Eating contaminated food or drinks
    • The hepatitis A virus can contaminate food at various stages, including during growing, harvesting, processing, handling, and even after cooking. This risk of contamination is more prevalent in countries where hepatitis A is widespread. While not common, foodborne outbreaks have been reported in the United States due to the consumption of contaminated fresh and frozen imported food products.


Not all individuals infected with hepatitis A exhibit symptoms. Adults are more prone to experiencing symptoms compared to children. Symptoms can last less than 2 months, but there are cases where it has lasted as long as 6 months. If symptoms do manifest, they typically emerge between 2 to 7 weeks after infection and may include:

  • Yellow skin or eyes
  • Not wanting to eatUpset Stomach
  • Throwing up
  • Stomach Pain
  • Fever
  • Dark urine or light colored stools
  • Diarrhea
  • Joint pain
  • Feeling tired


To diagnose hepatitis A, a doctor will assess your symptoms and collect a blood sample for examination. Treatment for hepatitis A symptoms typically involves the doctor’s recommendation of sufficient rest, proper nutrition, and maintaining hydration with fluids. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary for certain individuals. To prevent hepatitis A, the best prevention option is vaccination.


Hepatitis B


HBV is transmitted from an individual with an HBV infection to an uninfected person through activities involving percutaneous (skin-piercing) or mucosal contact with infectious blood or body fluids, such as semen and saliva. This includes activities like:

  • a mother to her baby during pregnancy or delivery
  • sexual contact with an infected partner
  • injection drug use that involves sharing needles, syringes, or drug-preparation equipment
  • contact with blood from or open sores
  • exposures to needle sticks or sharp instruments
  • sharing certain items that can break the skin or mucous membranes (e.g., razors, toothbrushes, and glucose monitoring equipment), potentially resulting in exposure to blood
  • through poor infection control practices in healthcare settings (e.g., dialysis units, diabetes clinics).


Acute HBV infection doesn’t always lead to symptoms in all individuals. Symptoms can vary from being asymptomatic or mild to extremely rare cases of fulminant hepatitis. The presence of signs and symptoms also depends on age. Typically, infants, children under 5 years old, and immunosuppressed adults with acute HBV infection show no symptoms. Moreover, people under 30 years old are less likely to experience symptoms compared to those aged 30 years and older. When present, signs and symptoms of acute HBV infections may include:

● fever
● fatigue
● loss of appetite
● nausea
● vomiting
● abdominal pain
● dark urine
● clay-colored stool
● joint pain
● jaundice


Typically, individuals with acute infection receive supportive care based on their specific symptoms. For those with chronic infection, several antiviral medications are available. Ensuring these patients are connected to ongoing care with regular monitoring is crucial to prevent liver damage and/or hepatocellular carcinoma.